Journal : ROBOTICA, 23 April 2022
This paper presents a new feature based approach for place recognition using 2D LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data. The main contribution lies in the mapping process. It includes a keypoint selection strategy to model places with persistent keypoints from concatenated LiDAR scans. Our objective is to achieve map data reduction while maintaining good place recognition performace. LiDAR scans are concatenated with a registration algorithm and keypoints are extracted from each scan. Based on a regular grid, our approach measures the occurrence of sim- ilar keypoints in each region of interest deﬁned by a grid cell. Only keypoints with occurrences beyond a threshold, qualiﬁed as stable keypoints, are kept in the place model called submap. The environment is therefore modeled as a collection of submaps, which constitutes the global map. Place recognition consists in submap matching followed by a two steps geometric veriﬁcation. In the ﬁrst stage, optimal parameters are set using corrected data. Mapping parameters satisfy six criteria among which is the spatial distribution distance, which represents another contri- bution of our work. It gives a measure on how well keypoints are distributed in space. Place recognition optimal parameters are set through global localization. In the second stage, the approach is evaluated using raw data in the contexts of global localization, and loop closure detection in a SLAM framework. The results obtained using pop- ular real data sets show that our approach achieves signiﬁcant map data reduction (up to 92%) while maintaining good place recognition performance, comparable to state-of-the-art methods.